How Does Someone Convert to Judaism?
When our ancestors accepted responsibility to observe the Torah, they did so by performing bris milah, immersing in a mikveh, and offering a korban. In the same way, a non-Jew who chooses to join the Jewish people is entering the same covenant and must follow a similar procedure (Kerisus 9a).
The privilege of becoming a geir tzedek comes with very exact and exacting guidelines. On a technical level, the geir is accepting responsibility to perform mitzvos. Through the geirus procedure, he creates an obligation upon himself to observe mitzvos (Birchas Shmuel, Kiddushin #15).
DEFINITION OF A JEW
To the non-Jewish or non-observant world, the definition of a Jew is based on sociological criteria. But to the Torah Jew, the definition of a Jew is someone who is a member of a people who are obligated to fulfill all of the Torah’s commandments. For this reason, it is axiomatic that no one can become Jewish without first accepting the responsibility to observe mitzvos (kabbalas mitzvos). This concept, so obvious to the Torah Jew, is almost never appreciated by the non-observant. Someone who does not (yet) observe mitzvos himself usually does not appreciate why observing mitzvos is imperative to becoming Jewish. This is why a not-yet-observant Jew often finds our requirements for giyur to be “unrealistic” or even “intolerant.” However, in reality, attempting to bend the Torah’s rules reflects intolerance, or, more exactly, a lack of understanding. The Torah Jew realizes that the basic requirement for becoming a Jew is accepting Hashem’s commandments, since a Jew is, by definition, someone who is committed to leading his life in its every detail according to the laws of the Torah.
As we all know, when someone requests to be converted to Judaism, we discourage him. As the Gemara (Yevamos 47a) says, if a potential convert comes, we ask him, “Why do you want to convert? Don’t you know that Jews are persecuted and dishonored? Constant suffering is their lot! Why do you want to join such a people?”
Why do we discourage a
sincere non-Jew from joining Jewish ranks? Shouldn’t we encourage someone to
undertake such a noble endeavor?
The reason is that, even if the potential convert is sincerely motivated, we still want to ascertain that he or she can persevere to keep the mitzvos, even under adversity. Although we can never be certain what the future will bring, by making the path to conversion difficult, we are helping the potential convert who might later regret his conversion, when the going gets rough. Because of this rationale, some batei din deliberately make it difficult for a potential convert, as a method of discouraging him. As the Gemara explains, we tell him, “Until now you received no punishment if you did not keep kosher. There was no punishment if you failed to observe Shabbos. If you become Jewish, you will receive very severe punishments for not keeping kosher or Shabbos!” (Yevamos 47a)
I have used a
different method of discouragement, by informing potential converts of the
seven mitzvos bnei Noach. In so doing, I point out that they can merit olam
haba without becoming obligated to keep all the Torah’s mitzvos. In this way, I
hope to make them responsible, moral non-Jews, without their becoming Jewish.
I once met a woman who
was enthusiastically interested in becoming Jewish. Although she was living in
a town with no Jewish community – she was keeping a kosher home!
After I explained the
mitzvos of bnei Noach to her, she insisted that this was not enough for her.
She wanted to be fully Jewish.
Because of her
enthusiasm, I expected to hear from her again. I was wrong. Perhaps her
tremendous enthusiasm petered out. Alternatively, and more likely, she found a
different way to consider herself Jewish, either on the basis of her
grandfather’s Judaism, or a “conversion” that was more “flexible.”
Had we accepted her
for conversion immediately, she would have become a sinning Jew, instead of a
very observant non-Jew, which is what she is now. These are the exact issues
that Chazal were concerned about. Therefore, they told us to make it difficult
for someone to become Jewish, to see whether his or her commitment survives
adversity. It was better that this woman’s enthusiasm waned before she became
Jewish than after she became Jewish and had no way out.
The following story from my personal experience is unfortunately very common. A gentile woman, eager to marry an observant Jewish man, agreed to fulfill all the mitzvos as a requirement for her conversion. (As we will point out shortly, this is not a recommended procedure.) Although she seemed initially very excited about observing mitzvos, with time she began to lose interest. In the end, she gave up observance completely. The unfortunate result is that she is now a chotei Yisrael (a Jew who sins).
We must ascertain that
the proposed convert wants to become Jewish for the correct reasons. If we
discern or suspect that there is an ulterior reason to convert, we do not
accept the potential convert, even if he is committed to observing all the
For this reason, converts are not accepted at times when there is political, financial, or social gain in being Jewish. For example, no converts were accepted in the days of Mordechai and Esther, nor in the times of Dovid and Shelomoh, nor will geirim be accepted in the era of the Moshiach. During such times, we suspect that the convert is somewhat motivated by the financial or political advantages in being Jewish (Yevamos 24b). This applies even if we are certain that he will observe all the mitzvos.
Despite this rule, unlearned Jews created “batei din” during the reign of Dovid HaMelech and accepted converts against the wishes of the beis din hagadol (Rambam, Hilchos Issurei Bi’ah 13:15). There is much literature on whether these geirim are accepted, but, if indeed their conversion was sincere and afterward it is obvious that this is true, they will be accepted.
The Rambam explains that the “non-Jewish” wives that Shlomoh married were really insincere converts. In his words, “In the days of Shlomoh, converts were not accepted by the official batei din…however, Shlomoh converted women and married them…and it was known that they converted for ulterior reasons and not through the official batei din. For this reason, the pasuk refers to them as non-Jews…furthermore, the end bears out that they worshipped idols and built altars to them” (Rambam, Hilchos Issurei Bi’ah 13:15-16).
Because of this rule,
we do not accept someone who is converting because he or she wants to marry
someone who is Jewish, even if the convert is absolutely willing to observe all
the mitzvos (Yevamos 24b). I have seen numerous instances of non-Jews who
converted primarily for marriage and who agreed to keep all the mitzvos at the
time of the conversion. Even in the instances where mitzvos were indeed
observed initially, I have seen very few situations where mitzvos were still
being observed a few years (or even months) later.
GEIRUS WITH IMPROPER
What is the halachic
status of someone who went through the geirus process for the wrong reasons;
for example, they converted because they wanted to marry someone?
If the convert followed all the procedures, including full acceptance of all the mitzvos, the conversion is valid, even though we disapprove of what was done. If the convert remains faithful to Jewish observance, we will treat him with all the respect due to a Jew. However, before reaching a decision as to his status, the beis din waits a while, to see whether the convert is indeed fully committed to living a Jewish life (Rambam, Issurei Bi’ah 13:15-18).
However, someone who
is not committed to mitzvah observance and just goes through the procedures has
not become Jewish at all.
Jim was interested in “converting to Judaism” because his wife was Jewish, and not because he was interested in observing mitzvos. At first, he went to a Rav who explained that he must observe all the mitzvos, and certainly they must live within a frum community. This was not what Jim had in mind, so he went shopping for a “rabbi” who would meet his standards. Who would believe that there is any validity to this conversion?
How does a non-Jew become Jewish? As mentioned above, Klal Yisrael joined Hashem’s covenant with three steps: bris milah (for males), immersion in a mikveh, and offering a korban (Kerisus 9a). Since no korbanos are brought today, the convert becomes a geir without fulfilling this mitzvah. (We derive from a pasuk that geirim are accepted even in generations that do not have a Beis HaMikdash.) However, when the Beis HaMikdash is iy”H rebuilt, every geir will be required to offer a korban olah which is completely burnt on the mizbei’ach (Rambam, Hilchos Issurei Bi’ah 13:5). Those who have already become geirim will become obligated to bring this korban at that time.
Besides these three
steps, the convert must accept all the mitzvos, just as the Jews originally
took upon themselves the responsibility to observe all the mitzvos.
Preferably, each step in the geirus procedure should be witnessed by a beis din. Some poskim contend that the bris and tevilah are valid even if not witnessed by a beis din. But all poskim agree that if the kabbalas (accepting) mitzvos does not take place in the presence of a beis din, the conversion is invalid (Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh Deah 268:3). Thus, a minimal requirement for proper giyur (conversion) is that the geir’s commitment to observe all the mitzvos and practices of a Jew be made in the presence of a kosher beis din. Any “conversion” with no commitment to mitzvos is, by definition, invalid and without any halachic foundation.
Unfortunately, some well-intentioned converts have been misled by people purporting to be batei din for geirus. I know of more than one situation in which people underwent four different conversion procedures, until they performed a geirus in the presence of a kosher beis din with proper kabbalas mitzvos!
As mentioned above, kabbalas mitzvos is a verbalized acceptance to observe all the Torah’s mitzvos. We do not accept a convert who states that he is accepting all the mitzvos of the Torah except for one (Bechoros 30b). Rav Moshe Feinstein discusses a woman who was interested in converting and was willing to fulfill all the mitzvos, except the requirements to dress in a halachically tzenuah manner. Rav Moshe rules that it is questionable if her geirus is valid (Shu”t Igros Moshe, Yoreh Deah 3:106).
If the potential convert states that he/she accepts responsibility to fulfill all the mitzvos, we usually assume that the geirus is valid. However, what is the halacha if a person declares that he accepts the mitzvos, but his behavior indicates the opposite? For example, what happens if the convert eats non-kosher food or desecrates Shabbos immediately following his conversion procedure? Is he considered Jewish?
Rav Moshe Feinstein rules that, when it is clear that the person never intended to observe mitzvos, the conversion is invalid. The person remains a non-Jew, since he never undertook kabbalas mitzvos, which is the most important component of geirus (Shu”t Igros Moshe, Yoreh Deah 1:157; 3:106).
As mentioned before,
conversion is an act that requires a proper beis din, meaning minimally, three
fully observant male Jews.
Since a beis din cannot perform a legal function at night or on Shabbos or Yom Tov, conversions cannot be performed at these times (Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh Deah 268:4).
Until now we have
discussed the conversion of adults. A child can also be converted to Judaism
(Kesubos 11a). There are two common reasons why this is done: either when the
child’s parents are converting to Judaism, or when a non-Jewish child is
adopted by Jewish parents.
The conversion of a
child involves an interesting question. As we explained above, the convert’s
acceptance of the mitzvos is the main factor that makes him into a Jew.
However, since a child is too young to assume legal obligations and
responsibilities, how can his conversion be valid when it is without a legal
acceptance of mitzvos?
The answer is that we know that children can be converted from the historical precedent of Sinai, where the Jewish people accepted the Torah and mitzvos. Among them were thousands of children who also joined the covenant and became part of klal Yisrael. When these children became adults, they became responsible to keep mitzvos (Tosafos, Sanhedrin 68b). Thus, in the case of giyur katan, the geirus process consists of bris milah and immersion in a mikvah.
There is, however, a qualitative difference between a child who becomes part of the covenant together with his parents and an adopted child who is becoming Jewish without his birth parents. In the former case the parent assumes responsibility for the child’s decision (Kesubos 11a; Rashi, Yevamos 48a s.v. eved), whereas an adoptive parent cannot assume this role in the conversion process. Instead, the beis din supervising the geirus acts as the child’s surrogate parents and assumes responsibility for his geirus. This same approach is used if a child comes of his own volition and requests to be converted (Mordechai, Yevamos 4:40).
CAN THE CHILD REJECT
Yes. If the child convert decides upon reaching maturity that he does not want to be Jewish, he invalidates his conversion and reverts to being a gentile. The age at which a child can make this decision is when he or she becomes obligated to observe mitzvos, twelve for a girl and thirteen for a boy (Shu”t Igros Moshe, Yoreh Deah 1:162).
CAN HE CHANGE HIS MIND
LATER IN LIFE?
No. Once the child
achieves maturity and is living an observant lifestyle, this is considered an
acceptance of the conversion that cannot be rejected afterwards.
WHAT IF THE CHILD
CONVERT WAS UNAWARE THAT HE WAS A GEIR AND DID NOT KNOW THAT HE HAD THE OPTION?
Rav Moshe Feinstein
discusses the case of a couple that adopted a non-Jewish child but did not want
to tell him that he was adopted. (Not telling the child he is adopted may be
inadvisable for psychological reasons, but this is an article on halacha, not
psychology.) Rav Moshe raises the following halachic reason why the parents
should tell the child that he is a convert. Assuming that the child knows he is
a child convert, he has the option to accept or reject his Judaism when turning
bar mitzvah (or bas mitzvah for a girl), which is a time that the parents have
much influence on their child. Subsequent to this time, he cannot opt out of
Judaism. However, if he does not discover that he is a convert until he becomes
an adult, he would have the option at that time to accept or reject his
Judaism, and the parents have limited influence on his decision.
WHAT IF THE CHILD
WANTS TO BE A NON-OBSERVANT JEW?
What is the halacha if
the child at age thirteen wants to be Jewish, but does not want to be
There is a dispute
among poskim whether this constitutes a rejection of one’s conversion. Some
contend that not observing mitzvos is not the same as rejecting conversion; the
conversion is only undone if the child does not want to be Jewish. Others
contend that not observing mitzvos is considered an abandonment of one’s being
Many years ago I asked my rebbe, Rav Yaakov Kulefsky zt”l, about the following situation. A boy underwent a giyur katan and was raised by non-observant “traditional” parents who kept a kosher home but did not observe Shabbos. The boy wanted to be Jewish without being observant, just like his adoptive parents. The family wanted to celebrate his bar mitzvah in an Orthodox shul and have the boy read from the Torah. Was this permitted or was the boy considered non-Jewish?
Rav Kulefsky, zt”l, paskened that the boy could read from the Torah and was considered halachically Jewish. Other poskim disagree, contending that being halachically Jewish requires acknowledging the mitzvos we must perform. Someone who rejects the mitzvos thereby rejects the concept of being Jewish.
GEIRIM ARE SPECIAL
If a potential geir persists in his determination to join the Jewish people, the beis din will usually recommend a program whereby he can learn about Judaism and set him on track for giyur. A geir tzedek should be treated with tremendous love and respect. Indeed, the Torah gives us a special mitzvah to “Love the Geir,” and we daven for them daily in our Shmoneh Esrei!
Throughout the years, I have met many sincere geirim and have been truly impressed by their dedication to Torah and mitzvos. Hearing about the journey to find truth that brought them to Judaism is usually fascinating. What would cause a gentile to join the Jewish people, risk confronting the brunt of anti-Semitism, while at the same time being uncertain that Jews will accept him? Sincere converts are drawn by the truth of Torah and a desire to be part of the Chosen People. They know that they can follow the will of Hashem by doing seven mitzvos, but they insist on choosing an all-encompassing Torah lifestyle.
One sincere young woman, of Oriental background, stood firmly before the beis din. “Why would you want this?” questioned the Rav.
“Because it is truth
and gives my life meaning.”
“There are many rules
to follow,” he cautioned.
“I know. I have been
following them meticulously for two years,” was the immediate reply. “I
identify with the Jews.”
After further questioning, the beis din authorized her geirus, offering her two dates convenient for them. She chose the earlier one, so she could keep one extra Shabbos.
We should learn from the geir to observe our mitzvos every day with tremendous excitement – just as if we had received them for the first time!